This verse of Bhagavad-Gita is replete with contradiction and defies any mental exercise to understand what its meaning is.
If we take the first sentence it is easy to understand that the entire multiverse uses the very elemental structure of the Divine as its basic building block. (I am using the term multiverse instead of universe as current scientific knowledge indicates the possibility of many universes and our universe being one in which the physical laws make life possible. When considering the realm of the Divine, other universes cannot be excluded as the omniscience of God must be totally inclusive)
In the next two sentences, we run into a difficulty as we are told that while all beings are in the Divine plenum, you can not assume that the reverse is true. This is because we always assume a certain order of sequential logical thinking to comprehend a higher order of reality and conclude that the same sequence can be applied to understanding a lower order of reality.
Students of mathematics will easily understand my statement. This is known as ‘concept of Complementarity’
The logical conclusion is that mind is the basis of our reality, and matter evolves from it, not the other way around. A holistic logic system is postulated which could give us the reason for why Lord Krishna says: “All beings are in Me, but I am not in them. And yet everything that is created does not rest in Me. Behold My mystic opulence! Although I am the maintainer of all living entities and although I am everywhere, I am not a part of this cosmic manifestation, for My Self is the very source of creation.”
The wisdom of the Vedic seers is to be appreciated as nearly 5000 years ago they postulated a principle which today in science is known as ‘The Holon principle’. (A Holon (Greek: ὅλον, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. Holons are autonomous, self-reliant units that possess a degree of independence and handle contingencies without asking higher authorities for instructions. These Holons are also simultaneously subject to control from one or more of these higher authorities. This word was coined for usage only in 1967.)
There are 12 principles that govern the concept of a Holon but I would like to highlight a few that are essential to our understanding of the text we are seeking to understand in a greater depth.
- The whole has more dimensions than each of its constituent parts. (All beings are in Me, but I am not in them)
- Each part is an aspect of the whole, seen from a lower order. (Atma / Pramatma relationship)
- The whole encompasses all its parts. (By Me, in My unmanifested form, this entire universe is pervaded)
- The whole is invisible from the orders of its parts. (This is why the Divine is beyond the space-time dimension)
- The whole is an undivided and homogeneous entity, while its parts appear as separate individual entities in their order. (Individual ego consciousness)
- Both the whole and its parts are real, but the whole has a more profound reality.
- The parts are wholes in their own right at a lower order. (God within yet limited in our manifestation with a capacity to transcend to higher order of reality)
- The whole is immanent in each of its parts. (Immanence, derived from the Latin ‘in manere’ – ‘to remain within’)
- It is impossible to perceive simultaneously more than one aspect of a whole undistorted from a lower order.
Love to you all